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Types of Chemical Peel and Effects


The effectiveness of using fruit acids in skincare often depends on the type and concentration of the acid.

For example, glycolic acid has a cleansing effect at low concentrations (<20%). At slightly higher concentrations (20-40%), it can exfoliate the skin by breaking down the intercellular bridges between cells in the stratum corneum, promoting skin metabolism. At even higher concentrations (50-70%), it has greater exfoliating power and can reach the dermal layer, making it suitable for chemical peels.

Aside from concentration, other factors that can affect the effectiveness of fruit acid treatment include the pH level, buffering agents, the duration of application, and the interval between treatments. There are also various classifications of fruit acids based on treatment depth, such as superficial, medium, deep, and very deep. The deeper the treatment, the greater the benefits, but also the greater the risk of side effects such as pigmentation and infection.

Fruit acids can be used to treat a variety of skin problems, including hydration, wrinkles, overall skin texture improvement, solar damage, actinic and seborrheic keratosis, acne, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, and even scars. Choosing the right fruit acid depends on the specific skin issue, so it’s best to consult a doctor for advice.

Fruit acids can be classified into four types based on treatment depth: superficial, medium, deep, and very deep. Examples of superficial fruit acids include glycolic acid, salicylic acid, and resorcinol. Medium fruit acids include glycolic acid (50-70%), Jessner’s solution, and trichloroacetic acid. Deep fruit acids include glycolic acid (50-70%), a combination of glycolic and trichloroacetic acid (50-70%), and phenol. Very deep fruit acids include Modified Baker’s peel and Baker-Gordon phenol peel.

As Asian skin tends to experience more post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, deep and very deep fruit acid treatments are less common. It’s essential to be mindful of the skin’s reaction to fruit acid treatment and adjust the concentration and frequency accordingly.