Deoxycholic acid is the main component of lipolysis injections, and it is originally a substance present in the human body that is used to digest and absorb fat. When used as a drug, it destroys fat.
Lipids in food need to be broken down to be absorbed. Bile is continuously secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and then released into the small intestine through the bile duct during meals to help digest fat. Oil is emulsified by bile in the small intestine and converted into fatty acids and glycerol esters, which are absorbed into the blood vessels through the epithelial cells of the intestinal wall.
Liver cells synthesize primary bile acids from cholesterol through multiple steps. Converting cholesterol to bile acids is the main way the liver clears cholesterol. Early cholesterol-lowering therapy used bile acid binding agents, which promoted the synthesis of more bile acids in liver cells to consume cholesterol. After bile is excreted into the intestinal lumen, primary bile acids are broken down by bacteria in the ileum and proximal colon into free primary bile acids, which are then converted into secondary bile acids – deoxycholic acid is one of them. About 95% or more of the various bile acids excreted into the intestine are reabsorbed. The reabsorbed bile acids enter the liver through the portal vein, are taken up again by liver cells, converted into conjugated bile acids, and excreted into the intestine.
If this substance, which is used to break down fat, is directly injected into the fat layer, high concentrations of deoxycholic acid can break down the cell membrane of fat cells and cause them to die. The destruction of fat cells triggers an inflammatory response, in which macrophages are attracted to the area to remove cell debris and lipids, which are then eliminated naturally. This is followed by the appearance of fibroblasts and an increase in collagen and the thickening of fibrous septa. These reactions effectively make the fat disappear and bring about a tightening effect.