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The Complication of Obesity: Adipose Tissue Disease

The most well-known aftermath of obesity is the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, which are all considered to be caused by sick fat disease. This is defined as a disorder in the endocrine and immune responses of adipose tissue and its cells.

To understand why obesity leads to this disease, it is important to understand the role of fat in the body. Fat is not only a tissue for energy storage, but also an active endocrine and immune tissue, which has a positive effect even in lean individuals (those with very low fat content). Adipose tissue is made up of various types of cells, including different types of immune cells such as macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, T and B cells. If there is too much body fat, these cells cannot function normally and can lead to sick fat disease. The following seven types of diseases are common examples of sick fat disease:

Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases

Hypertension
Hyperglycemia (pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes)
Metabolic syndrome (elevated triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol)
Cardiovascular disease
Hyperuricemia and gout
Insulin resistance
Tendency for blood clot formation
In fact, most of the metabolic diseases commonly encountered in clinical practice, including hypertension, diabetes, and lipid disorders, are usually caused by obesity and are considered to be sick fat disease.

Liver and gallbladder diseases

Gallstones
Non-alcoholic fatty liver
Kidney diseases

Glomerulonephritis
Kidney stones
Inflammatory diseases

Osteoarthritis
Atherosclerosis
Skin diseases

Acanthosis nigricans (symptoms include increased skin pigmentation, velvety thickening, excessive keratinization, and wart-like growths)
Neurological and psychiatric diseases

Aggravation of depression
Gray matter loss in the brain
Hormonal abnormalities

Hormonal imbalances (polycystic ovary syndrome, male hypogonadism)
It should be noted that the above risks are not limited to individuals with obesity. If your BMI is over 23, you may already have a higher risk of these diseases than the general population. As body fat increases, the risk of these diseases only increases further. To reduce the risks and complications associated with obesity, it is recommended to examine your lifestyle and eating habits, control energy intake and expenditure, and maintain normal levels of body weight and body fat.